Karnataka, situated in the south western region of India, is one of the most prosperous states in India. It is among the top four states in the country excelling in the fields of education, industry, agriculture, literature and tourism. Bengaluru, the Silicon Valley of Asia and the Start-up capital of Asia, is the administrative capital of the state.
Karnataka was formed on 1st November 1956 when the States Reorganization Act brought all Kannada-language speaking regions of south India under the state. It was then known as the State of Mysore and renamed as Karnataka in the year 1973. Every year 1st November is celebrated as the Kannada Rajyotsava (Karnataka Formation Day).
Karnataka is the seventh largest state in India in terms of area. Karnataka is bounded by the Arabian Sea and the Laccadive Sea on the west, Goa on the north-west, Maharashtra on the north, Telangana on the north-east, Andhra Pradesh on the east, Tamil Nadu on the south-east and Kerala on the south-west. The major rivers flowing through Karnataka are Cauvery, Kabini, Krishna and Tungabhadra. There are three distinct geographical regions in Karnataka: the Coastal Plains, the Western Ghats and the Deccan Plateau. Karnataka covers about 750 km from North to South and about 400 km from East to West. The coastline of Karnataka stretches for about 320 km. For administration the state has been divided into 30 districts.
Karnataka has a dynamic weather. The state experiences three types of climate: arid, semi-arid and humid tropical. The climate changes from place to place due to the region’s altitude, topography and the distance from the sea. Karnataka receives mean annual rainfall of around 1355 mm. The southwest monsoon brings maximum rainfall to the state. The district of Udupi gets the highest average rainfall while the districts such as Chitradurga, Koppal and Vijayapura receive the lowest rainfall.
Karnataka ranks ninth in terms of population in India. The population density of the state is 319 per sq. km. The decadal growth rate of Karnataka’s population is 15.7%. Karnataka’s population was recorded as 61.13 million as per 2011 Census of India. Out of this, 61.43% reside in the rural areas.
Karnataka is one of the fastest growing states in the country. The state contributed 5.68% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India in 2014-15. The state offers several incentives under the Karnataka Industrial Policy, 2014-19 to promote the growth of industry in the state. In 2014-15 the state government cleared 108 projects. These projects are expected to generate job opportunities for about 56,000 people.
Karnataka is known as the IT hub of India. About 400 of the Fortune Global 500 companies outsource their IT services to companies in Bengaluru. The state has 47 IT/ITeS SEZs and three software technology parks. Karnataka houses the fourth largest technology cluster in the world. Infosys, WIPRO, TCS, IBM, Dell, Honeywell, Accenture, Mphasis, MindTree are some of the important IT and ITeS companies based in Bengaluru. Karnataka is also making tremendous progress in Agro & Food Processing, Automotive & Aerospace, Education, Machine Tools, Mining & Minerals, Energy and Textile.
Karnataka is well connected with state and national highways, railways, airports and shipyards. The state has introduced metro railways in the capital city of Bengaluru with two operational lines.
Agriculture is a major occupation for most people in rural Karnataka. About 123,100 sq. km of land is cultivated in Karnataka. This is about 64.18 per cent of the total geographical area of the state. The major crops grown in the state are cereals, pulses, oilseeds and cash crops. Ragi, paddy, maize, jowar, and bajra are the major food crops grown in Karnataka. The main oilseed crops in the state are sunflower, safflower, ground nut and sesame. Important crop exports from the state include spices, coffee, tea and mango. Karnataka produces more than 55 per cent raw silk produced in the country.
There are several premier educational institutions in Karnataka, which are the most preferred destinations for students from within the country and from other countries. The city is home to the Indian Institute of Science; Indian Institute of Management; National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Science; University of Agricultural Sciences at Bengaluru; Bangalore University, National Centre for Biological Sciences; International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIITB) and Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research. National Institute of Technology, Surathkal; Indian Institute of Information Technology, Dharwad; Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal and several other universities, both in the public and private sector are spread over the state.
The giant public sector industries / companies which are in forefront as per the Science & Technology are concerned are National Aeronautical Laboratory, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Indian Space Research Organization, Bharat Electronics Limited, Bharat Heavy Electricals, Indian Telephone Industries, etc.
Shri Vajubhai Rudabhai Vala
Hon’ble Governor of Karnataka &
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
Sri. B. S. Yeddyurappa
Hon’ble Chief Minister of Karnataka